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Der Sezessionskrieg oder Amerikanische Bürgerkrieg war der von 18währende militärische Konflikt zwischen den aus den Vereinigten Staaten ausgetretenen, in der Konföderation vereinigten Südstaaten und den in der Union verbliebenen. Der Sezessionskrieg oder Amerikanische Bürgerkrieg war der von 18währende (deutsch: „ die Union, wie sie ist, und die Verfassung, wie sie ist. Hätte Maryland die Union noch verlassen, so wäre dies für die US-Regierung eine Katastrophe gewesen, da Washington, D.C. zwischen Maryland und Virginia. Deutsche stellten im Amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg ( – ) die größte Gruppe B. A. Could von der U.S. Sanitary Commission erstellte Quoten für jede nationale Bis war in diesen Einheiten Deutsch die offizielle Kommando- und or Earlier: to 19to · German-Americans in the Civil War. Many translated example sentences containing "American Civil War" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Die Wahl von Abraham Lincoln zum US-Präsidenten war ein Auslöser des Kriegs​. Als Lincoln im November zum Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten.

american civil war deutsch

The consequences of civil war and the impact of international competition on the Lebanese economy necessitate reform of the vocational training sector and SME​. Many translated example sentences containing "American Civil War" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Gedenkens an den „Civil War“ kein Detail zu banal, keine Person zu unwichtig ist​, erschien die US-Ausgabe des Buchs „Deutsche im.

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Johnston, der eine strategische Defensive befürwortete, sich der Invasion der Virginia-Halbinsel entgegenzustellen. Obwohl jedem in den Südstaaten nach der Wiederwahl Lincolns klar war, dass ein Verhandlungsfrieden unmöglich geworden war, führte die Einführung des Eine weitere neu entwickelte Waffe der Konföderierten war die David. Jahrhundert eingesetzt. He is particularly interested in the American Civil War.

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Der Bürgerkrieg in Nordamerika - Die Konföderation 2/3 - Doku american civil war deutsch Als Reaktion mobilisierte Lincoln die Streitkräfte, um die Stützpunkte zurückzuerobern. Further information: Slave Power. Die Potomac-Armee überquerte den James und marschierte auf Click to see more vor. Union und Konföderation verstärkten ihre Truppen auf dem Kriegsschauplatz in zweiten Jahreshälfte. Korps nach Little RockArkansas auswich.

Cotton diplomacy proved a failure as Europe had a surplus of cotton, while the —62 crop failures in Europe made the North's grain exports of critical importance.

It also helped to turn European opinion further away from the Confederacy. Meanwhile, the war created employment for arms makers, ironworkers, and British ships to transport weapons.

Lincoln's administration failed to appeal to European public opinion. Diplomats explained that the United States was not committed to the ending of slavery, and instead repeated legalistic arguments about the unconstitutionality of secession.

Confederate representatives, on the other hand, were much more successful by ignoring slavery and instead focusing on their struggle for liberty, their commitment to free trade, and the essential role of cotton in the European economy.

The European aristocracy was "absolutely gleeful in pronouncing the American debacle as proof that the entire experiment in popular government had failed.

European government leaders welcomed the fragmentation of the ascendant American Republic. However, public opinion against slavery created a political liability for politicians in Britain, where the antislavery movement was powerful.

War loomed in late between the U. Navy's boarding of the British ship Trent and seizure of two Confederate diplomats. However, London and Washington were able to smooth over the problem after Lincoln released the two.

In , the British considered mediation between North and South, though even such an offer would have risked war with the United States.

The Union victory in the Battle of Antietam caused them to delay this decision. The Emancipation Proclamation over time would reinforce the political liability of supporting the Confederacy.

Despite sympathy for the Confederacy, France's seizure of Mexico ultimately deterred them from war with the Union.

Confederate offers late in the war to end slavery in return for diplomatic recognition were not seriously considered by London or Paris. After , the Polish revolt against Russia further distracted the European powers, and ensured that they would remain neutral.

The Eastern theater refers to the military operations east of the Appalachian Mountains , including the states of Virginia , West Virginia , Maryland , and Pennsylvania , the District of Columbia , and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina.

George B. McClellan took command of the Union Army of the Potomac on July 26 he was briefly general-in-chief of all the Union armies, but was subsequently relieved of that post in favor of Maj.

Henry W. Halleck , and the war began in earnest in The Union strategy called for simultaneous advances along four axes: []. The Army originated as the Confederate Army of the Potomac , which was organized on June 20, , from all operational forces in northern Virginia.

The Army of the Peninsula was merged into it on April 12, When Virginia declared its secession in April , Robert E.

Lee chose to follow his home state, despite his desire for the country to remain intact and an offer of a senior Union command.

Lee's biographer, Douglas S. Freeman , asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1, Johnston , his predecessor in army command, before that date and referred to Johnston's command as the Army of Northern Virginia.

Part of the confusion results from the fact that Johnston commanded the Department of Northern Virginia as of October 22, and the name Army of Northern Virginia can be seen as an informal consequence of its parent department's name.

Jefferson Davis and Johnston did not adopt the name, but it is clear that the organization of units as of March 14 was the same organization that Lee received on June 1, and thus it is generally referred to today as the Army of Northern Virginia, even if that is correct only in retrospect.

Jackson assigned Jeb Stuart to command all the cavalry companies of the Army of the Shenandoah. He eventually commanded the Army of Northern Virginia's cavalry.

In one of the first highly visible battles, in July , a march by Union troops under the command of Maj.

Irvin McDowell on the Confederate forces led by Gen. The Union had the upper hand at first, nearly pushing confederate forces holding a defensive position into a rout, but Confederate reinforcements under.

Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad, and the course of the battle quickly changed. A brigade of Virginians under the relatively unknown brigadier general from the Virginia Military Institute , Thomas J.

Jackson, stood its ground, which resulted in Jackson receiving his famous nickname, "Stonewall". Upon the strong urging of President Lincoln to begin offensive operations, McClellan attacked Virginia in the spring of by way of the peninsula between the York River and James River , southeast of Richmond.

McClellan's army reached the gates of Richmond in the Peninsula Campaign , [] [] []. Banks and John C. Fremont , preventing them from reinforcing the Union offensive against Richmond.

The swiftness of Jackson's men earned them the nickname of " foot cavalry ". Lee assumed his position of command. Lincoln then restored Pope's troops to McClellan.

Antietam is considered a Union victory because it halted Lee's invasion of the North and provided an opportunity for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.

When the cautious McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj. Ambrose Burnside. Burnside was soon defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg [] on December 13, , when more than 12, Union soldiers were killed or wounded during repeated futile frontal assaults against Marye's Heights.

After the battle, Burnside was replaced by Maj. Joseph Hooker. Hooker, too, proved unable to defeat Lee's army; despite outnumbering the Confederates by more than two to one, his Chancellorsville Campaign proved ineffective and he was humiliated in the Battle of Chancellorsville in May Stonewall Jackson was shot in the arm by accidental friendly fire during the battle and subsequently died of complications.

The fiercest fighting of the battle—and the second bloodiest day of the Civil War—occurred on May 3 as Lee launched multiple attacks against the Union position at Chancellorsville.

That same day, John Sedgwick advanced across the Rappahannock River , defeated the small Confederate force at Marye's Heights in the Second Battle of Fredericksburg , and then moved to the west.

The Confederates fought a successful delaying action at the Battle of Salem Church. Hooker was replaced by Maj. George Meade during Lee's second invasion of the North , in June.

Meade defeated Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg July 1 to 3, Pickett's Charge on July 3 is often considered the high-water mark of the Confederacy because it signaled the collapse of serious Confederate threats of victory.

Lee's army suffered 28, casualties versus Meade's 23, After Meade's inconclusive fall campaign, Lincoln turned to the Western Theater for new leadership.

At the same time, the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg surrendered, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River, permanently isolating the western Confederacy, and producing the new leader Lincoln needed, Ulysses S.

The primary Confederate force in the Western theater was the Army of Tennessee. While the Confederate forces had numerous successes in the Eastern Theater, they were defeated many times in the West.

The Union's key strategist and tactician in the West was Ulysses S. Grant, who won victories at Forts Henry February 6, and Donelson February 11 to 16, , earning him the nickname of "Unconditional Surrender" Grant, by which the Union seized control of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.

Nathan Bedford Forrest rallied nearly 4, Confederate troops and led them to escape across the Cumberland. Nashville and central Tennessee thus fell to the Union, leading to attrition of local food supplies and livestock and a breakdown in social organization.

Leonidas Polk 's invasion of Columbus ended Kentucky's policy of neutrality and turned it against the Confederacy. Although rebuffed at Belmont, Grant cut off Columbus.

The Confederates, lacking their gunboats, were forced to retreat and the Union took control of western Kentucky and opened Tennessee in March At the Battle of Shiloh Pittsburg Landing , in Tennessee in April , the Confederates made a surprise attack that pushed Union forces against the river as night fell.

Overnight, the Navy landed additional reinforcements, and Grant counter-attacked. Grant and the Union won a decisive victory—the first battle with the high casualty rates that would repeat over and over.

One of the early Union objectives in the war was the capture of the Mississippi River , to cut the Confederacy in half.

Naval forces under Farragut ran past Confederate defenses south of New Orleans. Confederate forces abandoned the city, giving the Union a critical anchor in the deep South.

Memphis fell to Union forces on June 6, , and became a key base for further advances south along the Mississippi River.

Only the fortress city of Vicksburg , Mississippi, prevented Union control of the entire river.

Bragg's second invasion of Kentucky in the Confederate Heartland Offensive included initial successes such as Kirby Smith 's triumph at the Battle of Richmond and the capture of the Kentucky capital of Frankfort on September 3, Don Carlos Buell at the Battle of Perryville.

Bragg was forced to end his attempt at invading Kentucky and retreat due to lack of logistical support and lack of infantry recruits for the Confederacy in that state.

Bragg was narrowly defeated by Maj. Naval forces assisted Grant in the long, complex Vicksburg Campaign that resulted in the Confederates surrendering at the Battle of Vicksburg in July , which cemented Union control of the Mississippi River and is considered one of the turning points of the war.

The one clear Confederate victory in the West was the Battle of Chickamauga. James Longstreet's corps from Lee's army in the east , defeated Rosecrans, despite the heroic defensive stand of Maj.

George Henry Thomas. Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga , which Bragg then besieged in the Chattanooga Campaign. Grant marched to the relief of Rosecrans and defeated Bragg at the Third Battle of Chattanooga , [] eventually causing Longstreet to abandon his Knoxville Campaign and driving Confederate forces out of Tennessee and opening a route to Atlanta and the heart of the Confederacy.

The Trans-Mississippi theater refers to military operations west of the Mississippi River, not including the areas bordering the Pacific Ocean.

Extensive guerrilla warfare characterized the trans-Mississippi region, as the Confederacy lacked the troops and the logistics to support regular armies that could challenge Union control.

These partisans could not be entirely driven out of the state of Missouri until an entire regular Union infantry division was engaged.

By , these violent activities harmed the nationwide anti-war movement organizing against the re-election of Lincoln.

Missouri not only stayed in the Union but Lincoln took 70 percent of the vote for re-election. Numerous small-scale military actions south and west of Missouri sought to control Indian Territory and New Mexico Territory for the Union.

The Union repulsed Confederate incursions into New Mexico in , and the exiled Arizona government withdrew into Texas.

In the Indian Territory, civil war broke out within tribes. About 12, Indian warriors fought for the Confederacy and smaller numbers for the Union.

Although he lacked resources to beat Union armies, he built up a formidable arsenal at Tyler, along with his own Kirby Smithdom economy, a virtual "independent fiefdom" in Texas, including railroad construction and international smuggling.

The Union, in turn, did not directly engage him. The Lower Seaboard theater refers to military and naval operations that occurred near the coastal areas of the Southeast Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas as well as the southern part of the Mississippi River Port Hudson and south.

Union Naval activities were dictated by the Anaconda Plan. One of the earliest battles of the war was fought at Port Royal Sound , south of Charleston.

Much of the war along the South Carolina coast concentrated on capturing Charleston. In attempting to capture Charleston, the Union military tried two approaches, by land over James or Morris Islands or through the harbor.

However, the Confederates were able to drive back each Union attack. One of the most famous of the land attacks was the Second Battle of Fort Wagner , in which the 54th Massachusetts Infantry took part.

The Federals suffered a serious defeat in this battle, losing 1, men while the Confederates lost only Fort Pulaski on the Georgia coast was an early target for the Union navy.

Following the capture of Port Royal, an expedition was organized with engineer troops under the command of Captain Quincy A. Gillmore , forcing a Confederate surrender.

The Union army occupied the fort for the rest of the war after repairing. Porter attacked Forts Jackson and St. Philip , which guarded the river approach to New Orleans from the south.

While part of the fleet bombarded the forts, other vessels forced a break in the obstructions in the river and enabled the rest of the fleet to steam upriver to the city.

A Union army force commanded by Major General Benjamin Butler landed near the forts and forced their surrender.

Butler's controversial command of New Orleans earned him the nickname "Beast". Banks laid siege to Port Hudson for nearly eight weeks, the longest siege in US military history.

The Confederates attempted to defend with the Bayou Teche Campaign , but surrendered after Vicksburg.

These two surrenders gave the Union control over the entire Mississippi. Several small skirmishes were fought in Florida, but no major battles.

The biggest was the Battle of Olustee in early The Pacific Coast theater refers to military operations on the Pacific Ocean and in the states and Territories west of the Continental Divide.

At the beginning of , Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies. Grant made his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac and put Maj.

William Tecumseh Sherman in command of most of the western armies. Grant understood the concept of total war and believed, along with Lincoln and Sherman, that only the utter defeat of Confederate forces and their economic base would end the war.

This policy I believe exercised a material influence in hastening the end. Averell were to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia , and Maj.

Nathaniel P. Banks was to capture Mobile , Alabama. Grant's army set out on the Overland Campaign intending to draw Lee into a defense of Richmond, where they would attempt to pin down and destroy the Confederate army.

The Union army first attempted to maneuver past Lee and fought several battles, notably at the Wilderness , Spotsylvania , and Cold Harbor.

These battles resulted in heavy losses on both sides and forced Lee's Confederates to fall back repeatedly. An attempt to outflank Lee from the south failed under Butler, who was trapped inside the Bermuda Hundred river bend.

Each battle resulted in setbacks for the Union that mirrored what they had suffered under prior generals, though unlike those prior generals, Grant fought on rather than retreat.

While Lee was preparing for an attack on Richmond, Grant unexpectedly turned south to cross the James River and began the protracted Siege of Petersburg , where the two armies engaged in trench warfare for over nine months.

Grant finally found a commander, General Philip Sheridan, aggressive enough to prevail in the Valley Campaigns of Sheridan was initially repelled at the Battle of New Market by former U.

John C. After redoubling his efforts, Sheridan defeated Maj. Jubal A. Early in a series of battles, including a final decisive defeat at the Battle of Cedar Creek.

Sheridan then proceeded to destroy the agricultural base of the Shenandoah Valley , a strategy similar to the tactics Sherman later employed in Georgia.

Johnston and John Bell Hood along the way. The fall of Atlanta on September 2, , guaranteed the reelection of Lincoln as president. Union Maj.

Thomas dealt Hood a massive defeat at the Battle of Nashville , effectively destroying Hood's army. Leaving Atlanta, and his base of supplies, Sherman's army marched with an unknown destination, laying waste to about 20 percent of the farms in Georgia in his " March to the Sea ".

Sherman's army was followed by thousands of freed slaves; there were no major battles along the March. Sherman turned north through South Carolina and North Carolina to approach the Confederate Virginia lines from the south, increasing the pressure on Lee's army.

Lee's army, thinned by desertion and casualties, was now much smaller than Grant's. One last Confederate attempt to break the Union hold on Petersburg failed at the decisive Battle of Five Forks sometimes called "the Waterloo of the Confederacy" on April 1.

This meant that the Union now controlled the entire perimeter surrounding Richmond-Petersburg, completely cutting it off from the Confederacy.

Realizing that the capital was now lost, Lee decided to evacuate his army. The remaining Confederate units fled west after a defeat at Sayler's Creek.

Initially, Lee did not intend to surrender but planned to regroup at the village of Appomattox Court House , where supplies were to be waiting and then continue the war.

Grant chased Lee and got in front of him so that when Lee's army reached Appomattox Court House, they were surrounded. After an initial battle, Lee decided that the fight was now hopeless, and surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, , at the McLean House.

Lincoln died early the next morning and Lincoln's vice president, Andrew Johnson , became the 17th president. Meanwhile, Confederate forces across the South surrendered as news of Lee's surrender reached them.

It proved to be the largest surrender of Confederate forces. On May 4th, all remaining Confederate forces in Alabama and Mississippi surrendered.

President Johnson officially declared an end to the insurrection on May 9, ; Confederate president, Jefferson Davis , was captured the following day.

The causes of the war , the reasons for its outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of lingering contention today. The North and West grew rich while the once-rich South became poor for a century.

The national political power of the slaveowners and rich Southerners ended. Historians are less sure about the results of the postwar Reconstruction, especially regarding the second-class citizenship of the Freedmen and their poverty.

Historians have debated whether the Confederacy could have won the war. Most scholars, including James McPherson , argue that Confederate victory was at least possible.

He also argues that if the Confederacy had fought using unconventional tactics, they would have more easily been able to hold out long enough to exhaust the Union.

Confederates did not need to invade and hold enemy territory to win but only needed to fight a defensive war to convince the North that the cost of winning was too high.

The North needed to conquer and hold vast stretches of enemy territory and defeat Confederate armies to win. The Confederacy sought to win independence by out-lasting Lincoln; however, after Atlanta fell and Lincoln defeated McClellan in the election of , all hope for a political victory for the South ended.

At that point, Lincoln had secured the support of the Republicans, War Democrats, the border states, emancipated slaves, and the neutrality of Britain and France.

By defeating the Democrats and McClellan, he also defeated the Copperheads and their peace platform. Many scholars argue that the Union held an insurmountable long-term advantage over the Confederacy in industrial strength and population.

Confederate actions, they argue, only delayed defeat. If there had been more Southern victories, and a lot more, the North simply would have brought that other hand out from behind its back.

I don't think the South ever had a chance to win that War. A minority view among historians is that the Confederacy lost because, as E.

Merton Coulter put it, "people did not will hard enough and long enough to win. Wilson , in The Collapse of the Confederacy , "internal conflict should figure prominently in any explanation of Confederate defeat.

He argues that the non-owner soldiers grew embittered about fighting to preserve slavery and fought less enthusiastically.

He attributes the major Confederate defeats in at Vicksburg and Missionary Ridge to this class conflict. McPherson , after reading thousands of letters written by Confederate soldiers, found strong patriotism that continued to the end; they truly believed they were fighting for freedom and liberty.

Even as the Confederacy was visibly collapsing in —65, he says most Confederate soldiers were fighting hard.

Also important were Lincoln's eloquence in rationalizing the national purpose and his skill in keeping the border states committed to the Union cause.

The Emancipation Proclamation was an effective use of the President's war powers. Southern leaders needed to get European powers to help break up the blockade the Union had created around the Southern ports and cities.

Lincoln's naval blockade was 95 percent effective at stopping trade goods; as a result, imports and exports to the South declined significantly.

The abundance of European cotton and Britain's hostility to the institution of slavery, along with Lincoln's Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico naval blockades, severely decreased any chance that either Britain or France would enter the war.

Historian Don Doyle has argued that the Union victory had a major impact on the course of world history.

A Confederate victory, on the other hand, would have meant a new birth of slavery, not freedom. Historian Fergus Bordewich, following Doyle, argues that:.

The North's victory decisively proved the durability of democratic government. Confederate independence, on the other hand, would have established an American model for reactionary politics and race-based repression that would likely have cast an international shadow into the twentieth century and perhaps beyond.

Scholars have debated what the effects of the war were on political and economic power in the South.

The war resulted in at least 1,, casualties 3 percent of the population , including about , soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease, and 50, civilians.

David Hacker believes the number of soldier deaths was approximately ,, 20 percent higher than traditionally estimated, and possibly as high as , Based on census figures, 8 percent of all white men aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6 percent in the North and 18 percent in the South.

Union army dead, amounting to 15 percent of the over two million who served, was broken down as follows: [6].

In addition there were 4, deaths in the Navy 2, in battle and in the Marines in battle. Black troops made up 10 percent of the Union death toll, they amounted to 15 percent of disease deaths but less than 3 percent of those killed in battle.

Of the 67, Regular Army white troops, 8. Of the approximately , United States Colored Troops , however, over 36, died, or In other words, the mortality "rate" amongst the United States Colored Troops in the Civil War was thirty-five percent greater than that among other troops, even though the former were not enrolled until some eighteen months after the fighting began.

Confederate records compiled by historian William F. Fox list 74, killed and died of wounds and 59, died of disease. Including Confederate estimates of battle losses where no records exist would bring the Confederate death toll to 94, killed and died of wounds.

Fox complained, however, that records were incomplete, especially during the last year of the war, and that battlefield reports likely under-counted deaths many men counted as wounded in battlefield reports subsequently died of their wounds.

Thomas L. Livermore, using Fox's data, put the number of Confederate non-combat deaths at ,, using the official estimate of Union deaths from disease and accidents and a comparison of Union and Confederate enlistment records, for a total of , deaths.

The United States National Park Service uses the following figures in its official tally of war losses: [2]. While the figures of , army deaths for the Union and , for the Confederacy remained commonly cited, they are incomplete.

In addition to many Confederate records being missing, partly as a result of Confederate widows not reporting deaths due to being ineligible for benefits, both armies only counted troops who died during their service and not the tens of thousands who died of wounds or diseases after being discharged.

This often happened only a few days or weeks later. Francis Amasa Walker , superintendent of the census, used census and surgeon general data to estimate a minimum of , Union military deaths and , Confederate military deaths, for a total death toll of , soldiers.

While Walker's estimates were originally dismissed because of the census's undercounting, it was later found that the census was only off by 6.

Analyzing the number of dead by using census data to calculate the deviation of the death rate of men of fighting age from the norm suggests that at least , and at most ,, but most likely , soldiers, died in the war.

Deaths among former slaves has proven much harder to estimate, due to the lack of reliable census data at the time, though they were known to be considerable, as former slaves were set free or escaped in massive numbers in an area where the Union army did not have sufficient shelter, doctors, or food for them.

Losses were far higher than during the recent defeat of Mexico , which saw roughly thirteen thousand American deaths, including fewer than two thousand killed in battle, between and One reason for the high number of battle deaths during the war was the continued use of tactics similar to those of the Napoleonic Wars at the turn of the century, such as charging.

This led to the adoption of trench warfare , a style of fighting that defined much of World War I.

The wealth amassed in slaves and slavery for the Confederacy's 3. Slaves in the border states and those located in some former Confederate territory occupied before the Emancipation Proclamation were freed by state action or on December 6, by the Thirteenth Amendment.

The war destroyed much of the wealth that had existed in the South. All accumulated investment Confederate bonds was forfeit; most banks and railroads were bankrupt.

The income per person in the South dropped to less than 40 percent of that of the North, a condition that lasted until well into the 20th century.

Southern influence in the U. During the Reconstruction era, national unity was slowly restored, the national government expanded its power, and civil and political rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation.

While not all Southerners saw themselves as fighting to preserve slavery, most of the officers and over a third of the rank and file in Lee 's army had close family ties to slavery.

To Northerners, in contrast, the motivation was primarily to preserve the Union , not to abolish slavery. The Republicans' counterargument that slavery was the mainstay of the enemy steadily gained support, with the Democrats losing decisively in the elections in the northern state of Ohio when they tried to resurrect anti-black sentiment.

About , volunteered, further enhancing the numerical advantage the Union armies enjoyed over the Confederates, who did not dare emulate the equivalent manpower source for fear of fundamentally undermining the legitimacy of slavery.

During the Civil War, sentiment concerning slaves, enslavement and emancipation in the United States was divided.

In , Lincoln worried that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states, and that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game.

Lincoln warned the border states that a more radical type of emancipation would happen if his gradual plan based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization was rejected.

When Lincoln told his cabinet about his proposed emancipation proclamation, Seward advised Lincoln to wait for a victory before issuing it, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat".

In September , the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and the subsequent War Governors' Conference added support for the proclamation.

In his letter to Albert G. Hodges , Lincoln explained his belief that "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me.

Lincoln's moderate approach succeeded in inducing border states, War Democrats and emancipated slaves to fight for the Union.

All abolished slavery on their own, except Kentucky and Delaware. Since the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the President's war powers, it only included territory held by Confederates at the time.

However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty.

In Texas v. White , 74 U. The war had utterly devastated the South, and posed serious questions of how the South would be re-integrated to the Union.

Reconstruction began during the war, with the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, , and it continued until From the Union perspective, the goals of Reconstruction were to consolidate the Union victory on the battlefield by reuniting the Union; to guarantee a " republican form of government " for the ex-Confederate states; and to permanently end slavery—and prevent semi-slavery status.

President Johnson took a lenient approach and saw the achievement of the main war goals as realized in , when each ex-rebel state repudiated secession and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment.

Radical Republicans demanded proof that Confederate nationalism was dead and that the slaves were truly free.

They came to the fore after the elections and undid much of Johnson's work. In the "Liberal Republicans" argued that the war goals had been achieved and that Reconstruction should end.

They ran a presidential ticket in but were decisively defeated. In , Democrats, primarily Southern, took control of Congress and opposed any more reconstruction.

The Compromise of closed with a national consensus that the Civil War had finally ended. The Civil War would have a huge impact on American politics in the years to come.

Many veterans on the both sides were subsequently elected to political office, including five U. The Civil War is one of the central events in American collective memory.

There are innumerable statues, commemorations, books and archival collections. The memory includes the home front, military affairs, the treatment of soldiers, both living and dead, in the war's aftermath, depictions of the war in literature and art, evaluations of heroes and villains, and considerations of the moral and political lessons of the war.

Professional historians have paid much more attention to the causes of the war, than to the war itself. Military history has largely developed outside academia, leading to a proliferation of studies by non-scholars who nevertheless are familiar with the primary sources and pay close attention to battles and campaigns, and who write for the general public, rather than the scholarly community.

Bruce Catton and Shelby Foote are among the best-known writers. Memory of the war in the white South crystallized in the myth of the "Lost Cause" : that the Confederate cause was a just and heroic one.

The myth shaped regional identity and race relations for generations. Nolan notes that the Lost Cause was expressly "a rationalization, a cover-up to vindicate the name and fame" of those in rebellion.

Some claims revolve around the insignificance of slavery; some appeals highlight cultural differences between North and South; the military conflict by Confederate actors is idealized; in any case, secession was said to be lawful.

He also deems the Lost Cause "a caricature of the truth. This caricature wholly misrepresents and distorts the facts of the matter" in every instance.

Beard and Mary R. The Beards downplayed slavery, abolitionism, and issues of morality. Though this interpretation was abandoned by the Beards in the s, and by historians by the s, Beardian themes still echo among Lost Cause writers.

The first efforts at Civil War battlefield preservation and memorialization came during the war itself with the establishment of National Cemeteries at Gettysburg, Mill Springs and Chattanooga.

Soldiers began erecting markers on battlefields beginning with the First Battle of Bull Run in July , but the oldest surviving monument is the Hazen Brigade Monument near Murfreesboro, Tennessee , built in the summer of by soldiers in Union Col.

William B. Hazen's brigade to mark the spot where they buried their dead following the Battle of Stones River. In , these five parks and other national monuments were transferred to the jurisdiction of the National Park Service.

The modern Civil War battlefield preservation movement began in with the founding of the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites APCWS , a grassroots organization created by Civil War historians and others to preserve battlefield land by acquiring it.

Mint Civil War commemorative coin revenues designated for battlefield preservation. Although the two non-profit organizations joined forces on several battlefield acquisitions, ongoing conflicts prompted the boards of both organizations to facilitate a merger, which happened in with the creation of the Civil War Preservation Trust.

After expanding its mission in to include battlefields of the Revolutionary War and War of , the non-profit became the American Battlefield Trust in May , operating with two divisions, the Civil War Trust and the Revolutionary War Trust.

The American Civil War has been commemorated in many capacities ranging from the reenactment of battles to statues and memorial halls erected, to films being produced, to stamps and coins with Civil War themes being issued, all of which helped to shape public memory.

This varied advent occurred in greater proportions on the th and th anniversary. Numerous technological innovations during the Civil War had a great impact on 19th-century science.

The Civil War was one of the earliest examples of an " industrial war ", in which technological might is used to achieve military supremacy in a war.

The war was also the first appearances of rapid-firing weapons and machine guns such as the Agar gun and the Gatling gun. A number of commanders protested and a letter was sent to the government on March 19 signed by officers including Generals Richard Ewell , Jubal Early , Stephen Ramseur , and John Gordon requesting an increase in rations to account for servants.

Slave labor was not free of the perils of war, and Confederates occasionally wrote about slave laborers facing enemy shelling. Thus, the hazardous conditions of slave labor may have been in part premeditated [53].

In some cases, a plantation's slaves were asked for volunteer to join the army, and some were excited for the change in tasks.

In part, this was exacerbated by the refusal of white Confederate soldiers to join in the necessary labor in many cases. In Texas in June , district commander John Magruder was put in charge of one such bureau, and Magruder was known for his ability to usually succeed in appeals to slaveholder patriotism to acquire slaves rather than impressment.

Lee , Confederates in Pennsylvania rounded up as many blacks as possible, whether they were free before the war or not. These individuals became part of the spoils of war.

It would have been difficult for them to escape during the campaign, however. Fleeing to the north may not have seemed like an appealing option as, in some cases, northerners expressed their racism and dislike for blacks in the presence of Confederate soldiers and servants.

Even before the government authorized the impressment of slaves, officers forced thousands of slaves to work, and the scale of slave projects during the war was greater than those present on plantations, where only one master's slaves worked.

In September , Confederate General P. Beauregard was in charge of coastal defenses in South Carolina and Georgia and had 1, slaves working on the fortifications at Savannah.

In May , 7, slaves were said to be working at Mobile. In the spring of , between 4, and 6, slaves were said to be working on the railways running into Richmond.

Lee was in charge of defenses of the North Carolina , South Carolina, and Georgia coasts and had 3, slaves working in the fortifications at Wilmington.

Near the war's end, slaves were in high demand to fortify the last bastions of the Confederacy. In the defense of Atlanta , General Joseph E.

Johnston called for 12, slaves to join his army as teamsters and cooks, but such a large number was never furnished for any general, although slaves were an important part of the campaign, building fallback lines for the stubbornly retreating Confederate army to man.

At Richmond, Lee received 2, or his requested 5, to relieve white teamsters for duty in the lines.

Near the end of the war, the Confederacy made efforts to enlist black soldiers. In November , Confederate president Jefferson Davis called on the Confederate Congress to purchase 40, slaves who would then be emancipated in return for military service.

Such calls were very contentious in the south, with General Patrick Cleburne being a leading proponent of arming slaves.

Among the opposition to the idea, General Howell Cobb argued in January , "If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong.

Lee, "not only expedient but necessary. However, Confederate forces in Virginia surrendered on April 3 and the war was over on April 9, , before black soldiers had a chance to fight on the Confederate side.

At the outset of the war, Abraham Lincoln hoped to keep the Union intact with or without slavery. Butler , in command at Fort Monroe, Virginia , unilaterally refused to return escaped slaves who reached Federal lines to their slave-owners.

Instead, Butler employed them in the quartermaster department, reasoning that returning the slaves would aid the enemy, and the Grand Contraband Camp, Virginia was formed.

Lincoln allowed Butler's policy to stand, and on August 6, , Congress passed the First Confiscation Act which allowed the government to seize all property used by the Confederacy, including slaves.

However, Union commanders were officially instructed to exclude runaway slaves until July , when Lincoln admitted the importance of allowing slaves to escape to Union lines was a military necessity.

Initially, contrabands worked as teamsters, blacksmiths, cooks, coopers, carpenters, bakers, butchers, laundresses, personal servants, and performed other menial duties.

Over the course of the war, many contraband took on more formal employment in support of the Union Army, particularly as cattle drivers, stevedores, and pioneer laborers.

Fremont and of Secretary of War Simon Cameron to push forward emancipation and enlistment of black soldiers respectively. On the other hand, some Union Army Generals kept a practice of returning escaped slaves to their masters, particularly democrats such as Generals Henry Halleck , George B.

McClellan , and Don Carlos Buell. Halleck's General Order No. However, slaves strongly desired to be free and to contribute to their own emancipation.

Union soldiers saw the scars on the bodies of slaves they encountered marching in the south and saw the relative squalor in which they lived.

They heard the stories of slaves and saw their willingness to fight for their own freedom and join the Union Army.

This willingness to fight was irresistible to Union Generals in need of manpower. Since , Federal law prohibited black men from serving in the state militias and the U.

Army, but that changed during the war. Lane in Kansas and John W. Phelps in Louisiana began to enlist black men into regiments without War Department authorization.

Lane's efforts resulted in the First Kansas Colored Volunteers while Phelps was opposed by his superior, General Butler, who, desperate for reinforcements, relented in August resulting in the Louisiana Native Guards , which was made up largely of freemen.

On May 19, Lincoln annulled Hunter's emancipation decree, but remained silent on aspects of Hunter's proclamation involving the enlistment of slaves.

Matthews and Caesar Antoine. In September , Stanton authorized General Rufus Saxton , who had taken Hunter's position in command of parts of coastal South Carolina, to arm blacks to help guard coastal plantations, leading to the First South Carolina Colored Volunteers in and the establishment of colonies at places like Edisto Island and Port Royal.

Wickliffe and Robert Mallory of Kentucky opposing the efforts and Thaddeus Stevens leading the support. Lincoln's quiet official policies in favor of emancipation and enlistment of slaves and loud repudiation of Hunter and Fremont led to criticism by many abolitionists such as William Lloyd Garrison.

Executive and legislative efforts to end slavery started early in the war. In November , Lincoln proposed a plan of compensated emancipation for slaves in the state of Delaware, a proposal which was rejected by the Delaware legislature.

Lincoln proposed compensated emancipation programs again in early estimating that such a policy for Border States would be less expensive than continued war.

The appeal was again rejected in March A third attempt was made on July 12, when representatives of Border States rejected a compensated emancipation plan proposed by Lincoln.

In June, Congress emancipated slaves in Federal territories without compensation, overturning the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision of After the repeated rejection of compensated emancipation plans, Lincoln began to contemplate a presidential emancipation decree in mid On July 17, , Congress passed the Militia Act which emancipated Confederate bondsmen employed by the Union army and authorized the president to receive into service blacks for "any military or naval service for which they may be found competent", authorizing the enlistment of blacks although intended to only apply to slaves of disloyal slave-owners and not to free blacks or slaves of loyal border state slave-owners.

That same day, congress passed the Second Confiscation Act , which authorized the emancipation of slaves of people engaged in rebellion.

On July 21, , four days after signing the Militia and Second Confiscation Acts, Lincoln met with his cabinet to inform them that he intended to implement the military and emancipation provisions of the acts, but not the colonization, and the next day he shared with the cabinet the preliminary emancipation proclamation.

His proposal would extend to slaves beyond those under Federal Control and would be made as a war measure, which could circumvent the courts and legislature.

In order to avoid alienating Border States, particularly Kentucky, Lincoln chose not to unveil his new position until the New Year.

McClellan's victory at the Battle of Antietam in late summer gave Lincoln political capital, which was important in allowing Lincoln to issue his emancipation proclamation.

The proclamation did receive some criticism, particularly from the South. It also only freed slaves in Confederate controlled areas, exempting about , of the country's 2.

In addition, it depended on Union gains in the war for its enforcement. Sherman , who frequently complained about emancipation and enlistment but who complied with the edicts.

Throughout the war, slaves were emancipating themselves. The two major events which allowed slaves to choose freedom were the increased possibility of escaping as white men who otherwise controlled slaves leaving the plantations for the Confederate Army and the advance of Union troops into close proximity.

To prevent the former, attempts were made to better organize slave patrol and use the militia for such control, but these were less effective because the slave owners especially experienced in keeping their own slaves in bondage were often away in the Army.

Confederates reported that after their masters fled, the slaves in those areas pillaged their masters' property. The Union also made gains in western Kentucky , western Tennessee , and northern Mississippi.

Occupying Union forces made a number of efforts to provide for freed slaves. In Tennessee, General Ulysses S.

Grant appointed John Eaton, Jr. The camp provided shelter, food, and a small amount of medical attention. It also centralized the hiring of freedmen to whites who leased abandoned plantations; transforming agriculture in Union held areas from a slave to a wage based labor system.

The conflict was the costliest and deadliest war ever fought on American soil, with some , of 2. In , the U.

Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act , which essentially opened all new territories to slavery by asserting the rule of popular sovereignty over congressional edict.

On April 12, after Lincoln ordered a fleet to resupply Sumter, Confederate artillery fired the first shots of the Civil War.

Border slave states like Missouri , Kentucky and Maryland did not secede, but there was much Confederate sympathy among their citizens. Though on the surface the Civil War may have seemed a lopsided conflict, with the 23 states of the Union enjoying an enormous advantage in population, manufacturing including arms production and railroad construction, the Confederates had a strong military tradition, along with some of the best soldiers and commanders in the nation.

They also had a cause they believed in: preserving their long-held traditions and institutions, chief among these being slavery.

George B. McClellan —who replaced the aging General Winfield Scott as supreme commander of the Union Army after the first months of the war—was beloved by his troops, but his reluctance to advance frustrated Lincoln.

The combined forces of Robert E. Lincoln refused, and instead withdrew the Army of the Potomac to Washington.

Halleck, though he remained in command of the Army of the Potomac. On the heels of his victory at Manassas, Lee began the first Confederate invasion of the North.

Despite contradictory orders from Lincoln and Halleck, McClellan was able to reorganize his army and strike at Lee on September 14 in Maryland, driving the Confederates back to a defensive position along Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg.

Total casualties at the Battle of Antietam also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg numbered 12, of some 69, troops on the Union side, and 13, of around 52, for the Confederates.

The Union victory at Antietam would prove decisive, as it halted the Confederate advance in Maryland and forced Lee to retreat into Virginia.

Lincoln had used the occasion of the Union victory at Antietam to issue a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation , which freed all enslaved people in the rebellious states after January 1, He justified his decision as a wartime measure, and did not go so far as to free the enslaved people in the border states loyal to the Union.

Still, the Emancipation Proclamation deprived the Confederacy of the bulk of its labor forces and put international public opinion strongly on the Union side.

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  1. Es ist schade, dass ich mich jetzt nicht aussprechen kann - ist erzwungen, wegzugehen. Aber ich werde befreit werden - unbedingt werde ich schreiben dass ich denke.

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