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Als Vichy-Regime (französisch Régime de Vichy) bezeichnet man im Rückblick die Regierung des État français („Französischer Staat“) nach der mit dem. Als Vichy-Regime bezeichnet man im Rückblick die Regierung des État français nach der mit dem Waffenstillstand vom Juni anerkannten militärischen Niederlage gegen das Deutsche Reich. Mit dem Verfassungsgesetz vom Juli löste das. Das Vichy-Regime. Philippe Petain, um Der aufgrund der französischen Niederlage während der deutschen Westoffensive am Juni im Wald von. Wie die Franzosen im Zweiten Weltkrieg unter der damaligen Vichy-Regierung mit den Nazis kollaborierten. Nach der vorläufigen Niederlage Frankreichs im Zweiten Weltkrieg entstand das Vichy-Regime, das mit den Nationalsozialisten kollaborierte.
Der Bruch mit dem Vichy-Regime erfolgte jedoch bereits frühzeitig, ausgelöst durch die Verfolgung der Juden. Fand sich Frankreich mit der Niederlage ab? VICHY-REGIME Verdrängter Haß er es ablehnt, in dem Weltkrieg-I-Marschall Pétain und den Ministern des Vichy-Regimes Verräter an Frankreich zu sehen. Als Vichy-Regime (französisch Régime de Vichy) bezeichnet man im Rückblick die Regierung des État français („Französischer Staat“) nach der mit dem.
Moreover, a Vichy law of restricted the ability of women to work in the civil service and denied them further promotion to senior positions.
However, the law had to be soon suspended: irrespective of the pious rhetoric about the family, Vichy was faced with the reality that the number of single women had sharply increased because of the absence of prisoners of war and the men who worked in Germany.
Vichy had wanted to restrict the employment of women, yet, female labour was needed by At first, women were involved in charity networks and in assisting prisoners of war.
By , almost a quarter of all French workers in Germany were women; by about 50, women worked there Curtis; Issue: April Foreign Affairs.
Great Britain: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. France since the Revolution, texts and contexts. London: Arnold. France: The Dark Years, The Arbutus Review.
The Vichy government. The last days of the Vichy Regime. That blame fell squarely on the shoulders of Communists, socialists and Jews.
Jewish people in particular had been experiencing animosity for decades, since the Dreyfus Affair of the s. But all the foreign Jews were put into camps, they cracked down on dissent, and it was in some ways increasingly a police state.
Did the regime collaborate with Nazis out of self-preservation, or did it have its own agenda?
The misconception that the Vichy Regime was the lesser of two evils endured only for the first few decades after the war.
Since then, as more archival material has come to light , historians have gradually come to see the collaborators as willing participants in the Holocaust.
Before the Nazis ever demanded the Vichy government participate in anti-Semitic policies, the French had enacted policies that removed Jews from civil service and began seizing Jewish property.
If they stayed behind, he reasoned, who would care for them? All told, the Vichy regime helped deport 75, Jewish refugees and French citizens to death camps, according to the BBC.
Did the French public support the Vichy leaders? If there had been a public referendum, the French people, in a state of confusion after the military defeat, concerned with material interests, and distressed by the German occupation of the north of the country, might well have approved of Vichy.
At one extreme there was great brutality, especially by the violently anti-Semitic paramilitary Milice, while on the hand the number of protestors and heroic resistors against Vichy and the Nazis grew larger throughout the war.
As France has slowly come to terms with its role in the Holocaust and the willing collaboration of the Vichy government, citizens have struggled with what that legacy means for them.
Science Age of Humans. Future of Space Exploration. Human Behavior. Our Planet. Paxton trad. Oldenbourg, coll. Peter Lieb et Robert O.
Les Allemands interdisent La Marseillaise en zone nord. Perrin, , p. Veillon, O. Robert Laffont, , p. Ainsi fut fait. CAL, Paris, chap. Voir en particulier la note 42, p.
Seconde Guerre mondiale. Histoire de France. Gaule Gaule romaine Francs. Droit constitutionnel en France.
Chronologies de la France. Espaces de noms Article Discussion.The click the following article component of Addblocker ideology was Anglophobia. France and the international economy: from Vichy to the Treaty of Click. This section die bestimmung allegiant ganzer film deutsch to be updated. The government sought to promote see more values and peasant culture: popular traditions and folklore were encouraged; the earth was to be considered as a solace, a fatherland, in which French people had to please click for source rooted and had continue reading re-establish contact with the serie charmed, the essence of eternal France. United Kingdom.
However, Darlan was released and Eisenhower finally accepted his self-nomination as high commissioner of North Africa and French West Africa AEF , a move that enraged de Gaulle, who refused to recognize Darlan's status.
After Darlan signed an armistice with the Allies and took power in North Africa, Germany violated the armistice and invaded Vichy France on 10 November operation code-named Case Anton , triggering the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon.
Giraud arrived in Algiers on November 10, and agreed to subordinate himself to Darlan as the French African army commander.
Even though he was now in the Allied camp, Darlan maintained the repressive Vichy system in North Africa, including concentration camps in southern Algeria and racist laws.
Detainees were also forced to work on the Transsaharien railroad. Numerous Jewish children were prohibited from going to school, something which not even Vichy had implemented in metropolitan France.
The admiral was killed on 24 December in Algiers by the young monarchist Bonnier de La Chapelle. Although de la Chapelle had been a member of the resistance group led by Henri d'Astier de La Vigerie, it is believed he was acting as an individual.
The real power in mainland France devolved into the hands of Laval. This occurred through a series of consultations between Giraud and de Gaulle.
The latter wanted to pursue a political position in France and agreed to have Giraud as commander in chief, as the more qualified miliary person of the two.
It is questionable that he ordered that many French resistance leaders who had helped Eisenhower's troops be arrested, without any protest by Roosevelt's representative, Robert Murphy.
After very difficult negotiations, Giraud agreed to suppress the racist laws, and to liberate Vichy prisoners of the South Algerian concentration camps.
The Cremieux decree, which granted French citizenship to Jews in Algeria and which had been repealed by Vichy, was immediately restored by General De Gaulle.
Giraud took part in the Casablanca conference , with Roosevelt , Churchill and de Gaulle, in January The Allies discussed their general strategy for the war, and recognized joint leadership of North Africa by Giraud and de Gaulle.
Democratic rule was restored in French Algeria, and the Communists and Jews liberated from the concentration camps.
The Roosevelt administration was notably cool, if not hostile, to de Gaulle, especially resenting his refusal to cooperate in the Normandy invasion of 6 June Operation Overlord.
At the end of April , Pierre Gazagne, secretary of the general government headed by Yves Chataigneau, took advantage of his absence to exile anti-imperialist leader Messali Hadj and arrest the leaders of his party, the Algerian People's Party PPA .
Under Darnand and his sub-commanders, such as Paul Touvier and Jacques de Bernonville, the Milice was responsible for helping the German forces and police in the repression of the French Resistance and Maquis.
In addition, the Milice participated with area Gestapo head Klaus Barbie in seizing members of the resistance and minorities including Jews for shipment to detention centres, such as the Drancy deportation camp, en route to Auschwitz , and other German concentration camps, including Dachau and Buchenwald.
There were, in , approximately , Jews in metropolitan France, half of them with French citizenship and the others foreigners, mostly exiles.
About , of them, and the large majority of foreign Jews, lived in Paris and its outskirts. Among the , French Jews, about 30,, generally native from Central Europe, had been naturalized French during the s.
On this total of , Jews, approximatively 25, French Jews and 50, foreign Jews were deported. According to historian Robert Paxton, 76, Jews were deported and died in concentration and extermination camps.
Including the Jews who died in concentration camps in France, this makes for a total figure of 90, Jewish deaths nearly a quarter of the total Jewish population before the war.
This fact has been used as arguments by supporters of Vichy. During the Vel'd'hiv raid of July , Laval ordered the deportation of the children, against explicit German orders.
Paxton pointed out that if the total number of victims had not been higher, it was due to the shortage in wagons, the Resistance of the civilian population and deportation in other countries notably in Italy.
After the liberation, France was swept for a short period with a wave of executions of Collaborationists. Women who were suspected of having romantic liaisons with Nazis, or more often of being Nazi prostitutes, were publicly humiliated by having their heads shaved.
Many convicted Collaborationists were then amnestied under the Fourth Republic , while some civil servants, such as Maurice Papon, succeeding in holding important functions even under Charles de Gaulle and the Fifth Republic Finally came the period for amnesty and graces e.
He was convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad, but Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment.
Most convicts were amnestied a few years later. In the police, collaborators soon resumed official responsibilities.
This continuity of the administration was pointed out, in particular concerning the events of the Paris massacre of , executed under the orders of head of the Parisian police Maurice Papon, who was convicted only in for crimes against humanity.
Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina with the Foreign Legion instead of prison.
Singer Tino Rossi was detained in Fresnes prison, where, according to Combat newspaper, prison guards asked him for autographs.
Pierre Benoit or Arletty were also detained. Journalist Robert Aron estimated the popular executions to a number of 40, in , provoking de Gaulle's surprise, who estimated the real number to be around 10,, which is the figure today admitted by mainstream historians.
Approximatively 9, of these 10, refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle. In absolute value numbers , there have been fewer legal executions in France than in neighboring, and much smaller, Belgium, and fewer internments than in Norway or the Netherlands.
Famous Nazi hunters Serge and Beate Klarsfeld spent decades trying to bring them before the courts. Jacques Ploncard d'Assac became counsellor of Salazar in Portugal.
In former Vichy official Paul Touvier was convicted of crimes against humanity. Maurice Papon was convicted in , released three years later, and died in The official point of view of the French government is that the Vichy regime was an illegal government distinct from the French Republic, established by traitors under foreign influence.
While the criminal behavior of Vichy France is acknowledged, this point of view denies any responsibility of the state of France, alleging that acts committed between and were unconstitutional acts devoid of legitimacy.
In particular, pressures exerced by Pierre Laval have been denounced by historians, alleging that thus, the vote did not satisfy Constitutional legality See subsection: Conditions of armistice and 10 July vote of full powers.
One of these rules, for example, stated that:. This is a clear denial of the engagement of civilians, in particular foreign Jews, who took an active part in the Resistance in France.
Far-right leader Jean-Marie Le Pen, founder of the National Front in and several times condemned for Holocaust denial, racial hatred, and negationism, thus declared in the s, when he was actively engaged in the rehabilitation of Collaborationists:.
This isn't sure. It was much easier to resist in London than to resist in France. Although this claim is rejected by the rest of the French population and by the state itself, another myth remains strong today, and is more widespread than this one.
However, this nationalist argument which pretends to legimitate the French state collaboration has been rejected by several historians who are specialists of the subject, among them US historian Robert Paxton, who is widely recognized and whose foreign origin permits a more distant and objective judgment on the matter, and historian of the French police Maurice Rajsfus.
Both were called on as experts during the Papon trial in the s. The armistice let it a breathing space. He always said no. It even opposed itself, at first, to German plans.
Their idea was not to make of France an antisemitic country. The historical turn took place in , with the defeat on the Eastern Front.
This is the second Vichy. They always complained about the lack of staff. How can one pretend the reverse when such technical and administrative means have been put to this aim?
At the summit of the hierarchy, it knew, from the start, that the departure of these last ones was unavoidable.
Paxton then evoked the case of Italy, where deportation of Jewish people had only started after the German occupation — Italy surrendered to the Allies in mid And the French authorities complained about it to the Germans.
Download our mobile app for on-the-go access to the Jewish Virtual Library. Click to Enlarge Map. Canada maintained, till the beginning of November , full diplomatic relations with the Vichy Regime, until the Case Anton.
Australia maintained, until the end of the War, full diplomatic relations with the Vichy Regime and entered also into full diplomatic relations with the Free French.
The United Kingdom, shortly after the Armistice 22 June , attacked a large French naval contingent in Mers-el-Kebir, killing 1, French military personnel.
La vie thermale had its heyday in the s. Vichy became the summertime music capital of France, but the war of would put a brutal end to that development.
Moreover, the existence of a modern telephone exchange made it possible to reach the whole world via phone.
On 1 July, the government took possession of many hotels. On 9 and 10 July, in the main auditorium of the Opera House, the members of Parliament voted for the end of the Third Republic.
Only 80 of the members of Parliament voiced their opposition. Starting from this date, Vichy would be, for more than four years, the de facto capital of the French State.
Paris was still the official capital, although the Vichy France government never operated from there. This government is often called the Vichy Regime.
The term " Vichyste ," which designates partisans of this regime, should not be confused with " Vichyssois " which designates the inhabitants of the city.
The s and s would become the most ostentatious period for Vichy, complete with parading personalities, visits from crowned heads The Glaoui , the Pasha of Marrakech, Prince Rainier III of Monaco and profits from a massive influx of North African French clients who holidayed in Vichy, spending lavishly.
There were thirteen cinemas which sometimes showed special previews , eight dance halls and three theatres. It was at this period that the station would take the title of " Reine des villes d'eaux " Queen of the Spa Towns.
From June to September, so many French-Algerian tourists were arriving that it almost seemed like there was an airlift set up between Vichy-Charmeil and the airports of Algeria.
Mayor Pierre Coulon — decided to create Lake Allier 10 June and Omnisports Park —68 , giving the city its current look. The war in Algeria , which led to decolonization, marked once again a halt in the prosperity of this city, which from then on had to deal with much less favorable conditions.
The need to continue to pay the debts incurred by the considerable investments that had been made in more prosperous times obligated the new mayor, Jacques Lacarin — , the successor of Pierre Coulon, to adopt a much more careful policy of management.
Claude Malhuret , former Minister of Human Rights, born in Strasbourg in , was mayor from to The city and its economic partners have concluded an important program of restoration and modernization.
These projects include:. The city was first noted for its thermal cures in Roman times. Vichy Pastilles made in Vichy are octagon-shaped candies made from soda contained in the spring waters.
This French website discusses the history of this brand. The local market, open on Sundays, attracts shoppers from tens of kilometres around.
The closing of two important local employers, the Manurhin company and the Sediver company, has reduced employment in the Vichy basin.
Job creation by developing companies such as the NSE electronics company or the Satel call center company may not completely compensate for the removal of jobs which will result from this, despite the internet tour operator Karavel's establishment of a new call center in May Nevertheless, the two most important employers of the city belong to the public sector: the hospital 1, employees , and the town hall .
The Palace of the Congresses is a venue primarily for the conferences of trade associations and learned societies.
With 25, visitors yearly, the conferences must carry the economic role once held by the hydrotherapy industry, which today counts only 12, patients each year.
The hydrotherapy business will now have to reorganise itself to take a less strict therapeutic-only role, and adapt to patients' stays shorter than the traditional three weeks.
Under the authority of the local communities, much work is being done on building sites and projects, which will deeply modify Vichy in the years to come.
A wide variety of faiths are practiced. Various Christian denominations such as diverse Orthodox , Catholic and Protestant churches are found throughout the area along with adherents of Judaism , Islam , Buddhism and others.
MobiVie is the network of urban transport for six communes of Vichy Val d'Allier intercommunality. This network is composed of nine lines as of [update].
This service offers the local communes a reliable transportation service for areas that are not served by the MobiVie network.
Robert Laffont, , p. Ainsi fut fait. CAL, Paris, chap. Voir en particulier la note 42, p. Seconde Guerre mondiale. Histoire de France.
Gaule Gaule romaine Francs. Droit constitutionnel en France. Chronologies de la France. Espaces de noms Article Discussion.
Wikimedia Commons. Drapeau officiel. Travail, Famille, Patrie. La Marseillaise [ N 1 ]. Gouvernement provisoire [ N 2 ] de type dictature pluraliste.
Loi constitutionnelle du 10 juilletAls diebeiden anderen deutschen "Kapitalfehler der 60 Tage" bezeichnet der Autor den Read more an die deutschen Panzer vor Dünkirchen und das Zögern Hitlers auf der deutsch-italienischen Konferenz am 7. Frankreich unter deutscher Besatzung —, München Doch der Erfolg blieb deutlich hinter den deutschen Erwartungen zurück, da das Vichy-Regime die Rekrutierung nur vichy regime halbherzig unterstützte. Ganze Vichy regime wurden einbezogen. Juli wurde bestimmt, dass eine Beschäftigung im öffentlichen Dienst nur noch möglich sein sollte, wenn der Vater check this out Betroffenen Franzose war. Einzelne Bereiche. Der weltanschauliche Riss zwischen jenen, die sich auflehnen, link jenen, die bereitwillig mitarbeiten, zorn stream sich im Vichy-Regime auch durch Familien.